How Does a Concrete Truck Mixer Work?


Concrete truck mixers, also known as concrete transit mixers or cement mixers, play a crucial role in the construction industry by efficiently transporting and mixing concrete to construction sites. These specialized vehicles are equipped with rotating drums that ensure the concrete remains fresh and properly mixed during transportation. In this article, we will delve into the intricate workings of a concrete truck mixer, exploring its components, processes, and benefits.

Table of Contents

  1. Components of a Concrete Truck Mixer
    • 1.1 Chassis
    • 1.2 Mixer Drum
    • 1.3 Hydraulic System
    • 1.4 Water and Admixture Tanks
  2. Mixing Process
    • 2.1 Loading Aggregates and Cement
    • 2.2 Adding Water and Admixtures
    • 2.3 Rotating the Drum
    • 2.4 Discharging the Concrete
  3. Benefits of Using Concrete Truck Mixers
    • 3.1 Efficient Concrete Transportation
    • 3.2 Consistent Mixing Quality
    • 3.3 Reduced Labor and Equipment Requirements

Components of a Concrete Truck Mixer

1.1 Chassis

The chassis of a concrete truck mixer serves as the foundation and support structure for all other components. It is designed to withstand the weight of the concrete load and provide stability during transit. The chassis is typically equipped with a powerful engine that powers both the truck’s movement and the rotation of the mixer drum.

1.2 Mixer Drum

The mixer drum is the most distinctive feature of a concrete truck mixer. It is a large, cylindrical container with spiral blades mounted internally. The drum rotates about its horizontal axis to facilitate the mixing process. The design of the blades ensures thorough mixing of aggregates, cement, water, and admixtures, resulting in a homogeneous concrete mix.

1.3 Hydraulic System

The hydraulic system of a concrete truck mixer enables the controlled rotation of the mixer drum. It consists of hydraulic pumps, motors, and valves that work together to apply force and direction to the drum’s movement. The operator can adjust the drum’s speed and direction using hydraulic controls within the driver’s cabin.

1.4 Water and Admixture Tanks

Concrete requires water and often admixtures to achieve the desired consistency and properties. Concrete truck mixers are equipped with water and admixture tanks that store these components separately. The operator can introduce them into the mix during the loading or mixing process, ensuring precise control over the concrete’s characteristics.

Mixing Process

2.1 Loading Aggregates and Cement

The mixing process begins with the loading of aggregates and cement into the mixer drum. Aggregates, such as sand, gravel, and crushed stone, are carefully measured and poured into the drum. Cement is then added in the appropriate proportion based on the desired concrete mix design.

2.2 Adding Water and Admixtures

Once the aggregates and cement are in the drum, water and admixtures are added. Water is introduced from the onboard tank, and admixtures, which can include chemicals to enhance properties like strength or workability, are added as required.

2.3 Rotating the Drum

With all the components in place, the operator starts the hydraulic system, causing the mixer drum to rotate. The rotation action propels the spiral blades inside the drum, which thoroughly mix the ingredients. The continuous tumbling and folding of the mixture ensure a consistent and uniform distribution of cement, aggregates, water, and admixtures.

2.4 Discharging the Concrete

Once the mixing process is complete, the operator adjusts the drum’s position to prepare for concrete discharge. By reversing the drum’s rotation, the concrete is pushed towards the discharge chute at the rear of the truck. The concrete can be discharged directly into forms or other construction equipment.

Benefits of Using Concrete Truck Mixers

3.1 Efficient Concrete Transportation

Concrete truck mixers offer a highly efficient means of transporting concrete from batching plants to construction sites. The mixing process occurs during transit, which minimizes the risk of concrete setting prematurely and reduces the need for on-site mixing.

3.2 Consistent Mixing Quality

The controlled rotation of the mixer drum ensures consistent and uniform mixing of concrete ingredients. This results in a high-quality concrete mix that meets design specifications and provides the desired properties for the construction project.

3.3 Reduced Labor and Equipment Requirements

The use of concrete truck mixers reduces the need for manual labor and additional mixing equipment on construction sites. This streamlines the construction process, saves time, and enhances overall project efficiency.


Q1: Can a concrete truck mixer produce concrete with different properties?
A1: Yes, concrete truck mixers can produce concrete with varying properties by adjusting the proportions of aggregates, cement, water, and admixtures. This flexibility allows construction professionals to create concrete mixes tailored to specific project requirements.

Q2: How long can a concrete truck mixer keep the concrete fresh during transit?
A2: Concrete truck mixers are designed to keep the concrete fresh for a limited time, typically around 1 to 2 hours. After this period, the concrete’s workability and setting characteristics can be compromised.

Q3: Are there safety measures to consider when operating a concrete truck mixer?
A3: Yes, safety is paramount when operating a concrete truck mixer. Operators should be trained to handle the equipment safely, follow proper loading and unloading procedures, and ensure the drum is properly cleaned after each use to prevent buildup.


Concrete truck mixers are integral to modern construction projects, enabling the efficient transportation and mixing of concrete. Their intricate components and mixing processes contribute to the production of high-quality concrete that meets the demands of various construction applications. By understanding how these vehicles work, construction professionals can make informed decisions to optimize their concrete-related operations.

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